Mullen, S. P., Olson, E. A., Phillips, S. M., Szabo, A. N., Wójcicki, T. R., Mailey, E. L., Gothe, N. P., Fanning, J. T., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (2011). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: Invariance of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) across groups and time. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(103). doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-103.

The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity.